The thermal properties of matter describe how matter responds to changes in temperature. These properties are important in various fields, including physics, chemistry, and engineering. Some key thermal properties include:

1. **Temperature:** Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. It is commonly measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Kelvin (K).

2. **Heat Capacity:** Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by one degree Celsius (or one Kelvin). It is usually expressed in joules per degree Celsius (J/°C) or specific heat capacity in J/(kg·°C).

3. **Thermal Expansion:** Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume, area, or length in response to a change in temperature. Most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled.

4. **Coefficient of Thermal Expansion:** The coefficient of thermal expansion is a measure of how much a material expands or contracts per unit change in temperature. It is usually expressed in per degree Celsius (°C⁻¹).

5. **Conduction:** Conduction is the transfer of heat through a material without the movement of the material itself. It occurs due to the collisions between particles in the material.

6. **Convection:** Convection is the transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid (liquid or gas). It involves the transfer of heat by the movement of hot, less dense fluid and the displacement of cooler, denser fluid.

7. **Radiation:** Radiation is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves. Unlike conduction and convection, radiation does not require a medium and can occur through a vacuum.

8. **Thermal Conductivity:** Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts heat. It is usually expressed in watts per meter per degree Celsius (W/(m·°C)).

9. **Latent Heat:** Latent heat is the heat absorbed or released by a substance during a phase change (e.g., melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation) without a change in temperature. It is usually expressed in joules per kilogram (J/kg).

Understanding these thermal properties is important for various applications, such as designing efficient heating and cooling systems, selecting materials for specific purposes, and studying the behavior of matter at different temperatures.