Sure! Here are some important biology formulas and concepts that are commonly taught in Class 12:

1. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium:
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
p = frequency of dominant allele
q = frequency of recessive allele
p^2 = frequency of homozygous dominant genotype
2pq = frequency of heterozygous genotype
q^2 = frequency of homozygous recessive genotype

2. Photosynthesis:
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
(Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy -> Glucose + Oxygen)

3. Cellular Respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
(Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP energy)

4. DNA Replication:
DNA replication is a semi-conservative process where each strand of the original DNA molecule acts as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. The end result is two identical DNA molecules, each with one original strand and one newly synthesized strand.

5. Cell Division – Mitosis:
Number of chromosomes before division = Number of chromosomes after division

6. Meiosis:
Number of chromosomes in gametes (n) = Number of chromosomes in somatic cells (2n) / 2

7. Gene Expression – Transcription:
(Transcription is the process of synthesizing mRNA from DNA template)

8. Gene Expression – Translation:
mRNA -> Protein
(Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from mRNA template)

9. Enzyme Activity – Michaelis-Menten Equation:
V = (Vmax * [S]) / (Km + [S])
V = reaction rate (velocity)
Vmax = maximum reaction rate
[S] = substrate concentration
Km = Michaelis constant (substrate concentration at half-maximal velocity)

10. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (Genetic Equilibrium):
In a non-evolving population, the genotype frequencies remain constant from generation to generation, and the population is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

These are just some of the important formulas and concepts you’ll come across in Class 12 Biology. Make sure to study and understand these thoroughly as they form the basis for many biological principles and applications.