Gravitation is the force of attraction that exists between all objects with mass. It is one of the fundamental forces of nature and plays a crucial role in determining the motion of celestial bodies, such as planets, stars, and galaxies. Here are some key points about gravitation:

1. **Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation:** This law states that every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. Mathematically, it is expressed as \( F = G \frac{m_1 m_2}{r^2} \), where \( F \) is the gravitational force, \( G \) is the gravitational constant, \( m_1 \) and \( m_2 \) are the masses of the two objects, and \( r \) is the distance between their centers.

2. **Gravitational Field:** The gravitational field at a point in space is the force per unit mass experienced by a small test mass placed at that point. It is given by \( \vec{g} = -\frac{GM}{r^2} \hat{r} \), where \( \vec{g} \) is the gravitational field, \( G \) is the gravitational constant, \( M \) is the mass of the attracting object, \( r \) is the distance from the center of the object, and \( \hat{r} \) is the unit vector pointing radially outward from the center of the object.

3. **Gravitational Potential Energy:** The gravitational potential energy between two objects is the work done in bringing them from infinity to a certain distance apart. It is given by \( U = -\frac{GMm}{r} \), where \( U \) is the gravitational potential energy, \( G \) is the gravitational constant, \( M \) and \( m \) are the masses of the two objects, and \( r \) is the distance between their centers.

4. **Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion:** These laws describe the motion of planets around the Sun. They include the law of ellipses, the law of equal areas, and the law of harmonies, which relate the orbital properties of planets to their distances from the Sun and their periods of revolution.

5. **Escape Velocity:** The escape velocity is the minimum velocity an object must have to break free from the gravitational attraction of a planet or other celestial body. It is given by \( v_e = \sqrt{2GM/r} \), where \( v_e \) is the escape velocity, \( G \) is the gravitational constant, \( M \) is the mass of the planet, and \( r \) is the distance from the center of the planet.

Gravitation is a fundamental force that governs the motion of objects in the universe, from the smallest particles to the largest galaxies.

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